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This large detailed chart shows the fleets of the U.S, The United Kingdom and Japan .  The chart measures 60 ¾ x 42 ¾ and was published by the Japan Ministry of the Navy in 1935.  

When Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933 (two years before this chart was published) over the Mukden Incident, it also renounced all treaty obligations.  Japan would no longer design battleships within the treaty limitations and was free to build warships larger than those of the other major maritime powers.

In the 1930s, the Japanese government began a shift towards ultranationalist militancy. This movement called for the expansion of the Japanese Empire to include much of the Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia. The maintenance of such an empire—spanning 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from China to Midway Island—required a sizable fleet capable of sustained control of territory.

Although all of Japan's battleships built prior to the Yamato class had been completed before 1921, as the Washington Treaty had prevented any more from being completed, all had been either reconstructed or significantly modernized, or both, in the 1930’s. This modernization included, among other things, additional speed and firepower, which the Japanese intended to use to conquer and defend their aspired-to empire   

The size and information contatined on this chart suggests that it was used for teaching and training purposes and was not a document intended for civilian use.   The mid 1930’s was a strategic time for Japan as they began to prepare for war.   After WWI, the battle ship was still the ultimate weapon for the Navy.  During WWII, the airplane would eventually prove itself as the dominant and most effective fighting machine. 

The "Washington Naval Treaty" was held in Washington, D.C., from November 1921 to February 1922, and was signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, France, and Italy.  It limited the construction of battleships, battlecruisers and aircraft carriers by the signatories.   Time line:

From Jun. 20-Aug. 4, 1927, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan discussed limitations on the construction of cruisers, destroyers, and submarines.

At The London Naval Conference,held Jan. 21-Apr. 22, 1930, Japan, United States and Great Britain agreed to limits on cruisers, destroyers, and submarines.

On Mar. 27, 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations.

On Dec. 29, 1934, Japan announced it would no longer observe the Washington Naval Treaty.

In 1935 the Japan ministry of the Navy published this chart showing a comparison of the fleets of the major players.

On Jan. 15, 1936, Japan withdrew from the London Naval Conference.